Phagocytes in general so Macrophages, Monocytes, dendritic cells (immature) and neutrophils.
also you have to mention ILC here which are recognized via cytokines produced by the tissue in response to infection
My answer :
-Physical barrier: multilayered epithelium (tight junctions), microbiome (normal flora), low ph/pepsin (stomach), (air) flow
-chemical barrier: anti-microbial proteins (defensins, lysozyme in saliva(/tears/human milk/mucous) produced by neutrophils/macrophages /epithelial cells and complement system (classical, alternative and MBL)
another question if he would ask in the exam about such a case but with a virus is the complement system also activated there? because he didn't mention it in the lecture.
Because in the case of bacteria the complement system gets activated
Since he is asking for steps:
1) activated t cells are treated with an inhibitor that blocks protein export, allowing cytokines to accumulate in the ER
2) the cell is fixed and permeabilized with mild detergents
3) cytokine-specific antibodies penetrate the cell to bind the intracellular cytokine molecules
I've uploaded solutions for practice exam 2019. I marked the answers I am not really sure about.
- How do you know of which Isotype are antibodies against S.aureus?
- Was CD25 ever mentioned in lecture ?(I had to look up its function in janeways
- I am not sure if my answer for the last question is correct.
Hi, 2 things that confused me, and maybe you, too.
1. Kahoot Questions and Answers, lesson 9, Q2: Which part of an immunoglobulin is modified with somatic hypermutation
answer was "Variable part of light chain", but it is also the variable part of heavy chain (?!)
2.Script 10, page 15: Is called Type 3 response, against (extracellular) bacteria and fungi, but the figure below is about TH1 cells which play a role in type 1 response/intracellular bacteria.
Thank you, I didn't hear it or I've forgotten it and missed to write it down.
Philipp, I know that this is correct written in other parts, I just copied it from the lecture without thinking ^^ and then I learned it the wrong way with this notes.
vor 1 Jahr
Hey guys what answer did you pick in the practice exam for question 10 & 11? :)
Hi, I think there is a mistake in the book (Janeways): In the glossary, p. 826 it says "common lymphoid progenitor (CLP): Stem cell that can give rise to all the types of lymphocytes with the exception of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs).”
But on the first pages of the book, figure1.3 it is shown, that CLP gives also rise to ILCs "A common lymphoid progenitor gives rise to the lymphoid lineage (blue background) of white blood cells or leukocytes—the innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) and natural killer (NK) cells and the T and B lymphocytes”