Ribot Gradient refers to retrograde amnesia. It means, that memories, which are formed directly before an accident (damaging hippocampus) are forgotten, as they are not properly consolidated by the hippocampus, BUT memories from a long time ago had enough time to get consolidated, therefore these are not gone.
Multiple trace theory predicts FLAT retrograde amnesia (therefore NOT following the Ribot Gradient) for episodic memories since it states that hippocampus is ALWAYS involved in retrieving episodic memories (due to place cells in the hippocampus). Standard consolidation theory predicts a graded (following the Ribot gradient) retrograde amnesia for episodic memories, since it states, that after a while, the hippocampus is not necessary anymore to retrieve memories, as they are all stored independently in the cortex.
If I am not mistaking the latent inhibition experiment shows a paradigm that can NOT be explained with the Rescorla-Wagner model, that is not 100% clear in the table I guess. Just a little side note. thanks a lot :)
I will try, please correct me if I'm wrong haha
-The Premack principle is what he observed in the experiment with the rats. Initially, they didn't like to drink water so they didn't do this that much. However, they did like to run in their wheel (or something like that). When they got restricted to running in the wheel only after they had drank water, they drank much more water even if they didn't like this. So, because they wanted to run in their wheel (a highly-frequent behavior), they had to drink more water (initially a less-frequent behavior) to get access to the running wheel.
-The response deprivation hypothesis is something that Premack hypothesized (surprise surprise) after watching this happen. He thought that it doesn't matter which behavior is initially performed more frequently, what does matter is that it simply got restricted. This would mean for example that if he had turned the experiment around (run in the wheel first before they could drink the water), the same thing would happen: the rats would run more often to get access to the water.
Shaping is used for more simple insturmental conditioning tasks, where successive approximations are rewarded.
Chaning, which you can do backwards and forwards is used for more complex tasks, which are broken apart in order to condtition the subject.
If you want a rat to pull a lever, you will reward it once it gets closer to the lever, and then again if it's real close etc.. (Shaping)
If you want a rat to pull a lever and then move a marble to a bowl. You will start with condtioning the rat to the lever and then to the marble (, or the other way around). (This is chainging)
It's a term from multiple trace theory. It means that every time you try to recall a memory, that memory is temporarily vulnerable. This can lead to changes in the memory, and explains why 2 people remember the same event from a long time ago a bit differently
Multiple trace theory says that all memories initially are episodic. Some of them then lose their context and become semantic memories (like studying L&M in the library and at home, in the exam you don't remember where you studied but only what).
What does the standard theory of consolidation say about episodic and semantic memories? Didn't manage to find that out...
could someone please explain the difference between short-term and working memory to me? :)
i thought working memory is every type of memory that is available for maintenance and manipulation, so that short-term would be part of it, but also memories retrieved from long-term memory... is that true?
for me, short-term Memory Comes into Play when there is sensory Input and you Keep that Information through rehearsal without really working with it, and working-memory is when you retrieve Information from Long-term Memory and manipulate them.
It is also depended on which model you're looking, some are referring to short-term and some to working-memory
2 years ago
in lecture one of L and M he describes it a bit from minute 34 onwards :)